23-28 August 2010
Sustainability Institute, Lynedoch, Stellenbosch
This module deals with the harvesting of energy from wind and
water. It addresses the availability of the resources, the types of
systems and machines, their capabilities and limitations, the
processes of setting up such systems, and their associated costs
and environmental impacts.
Brief history, current state of industry and industry drivers.
Predominant technologies, theory of operation, electromechanical
and aerodynamic principles. Fundamentals of
power quality and grid integration. Wind energy facility
development process and methodologies, including wind
resource assessment. Feasibility factors such as energy capture
calculation, environmental impact assessment, grid studies and
Economic and environmental criteria. Hydrological resources
and project feasibility. Types of turbine. Specific speed and
specific power. Turbine selection criteria. Hydraulic energy,
hydraulic losses, pipe friction and other losses. Turbine output.
Multiple turbine units . Velocity of pressure waves in pipes.
Turbine capability diagrams. Basic operational constraints.
Turbine instability. Cavitation. The need for modeling.
Computational Fluid Dynamics. Physical modeling. Testing
the model. Turbine efficiency. Present hydro installations in the
world and in Africa. Cost of hydro power. Technology
developments. Scientific breakthroughs. Future scenarios